A high level of English language is crucial for being able to do any kind of serious research at the US universities. Also, without a good knowledge of the language, it will be difficult for you to communicate with locals. This is why a test of English language is required, and for most, this will be TOEFL.
Category: After Being Accepted
When you or your adviser are filling out the forms and arranging the paperwork for your visit, be careful about the Fulbright J-1 visa. My DS-2019 lists “student non-degree” under the “Exchange Visitor Category”, which caused some trouble at my host University. This fact led to quite a confusion, since for me to stay in USA with this status, my host institution had to enlist me as a student.
After being accepted, there are multiple documents and forms you will have to take care of before actually starting your Fulbright year.